Maori130G
The Maori Battalion during a haka in Egypt.

By the time the Second World War ended in 1945 the 28th (Maori) Battalion had become one of the most celebrated and decorated units in the New Zealand forces. The pinnacle of its achievement was the Victoria Cross won by Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu in 1943. Ultimately, nearly 16,000 Maori enlisted for service during the Second World War.
New Zealanders reacted with patriotic fervour to the outbreak of war in South Africa in 1899 and again when the First World War began in 1914. Imperial policy had officially excluded Maori from fighting in South Africa, but a number still enlisted. That policy was still in place in 1914, but a change of heart in London saw several thousand Maori eventually fight in the First World War.

By the time the Second World War ended in 1945 the 28th (Maori) Battalion had become one of the most celebrated and decorated units in the New Zealand forces. The pinnacle of its achievement was the Victoria Cross won by Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu in 1943. Ultimately, nearly 16,000 Maori enlisted for service during the Second World War.
New Zealanders reacted with patriotic fervour to the outbreak of war in South Africa in 1899 and again when the First World War began in 1914. Imperial policy had officially excluded Maori from fighting in South Africa, but a number still enlisted. That policy was still in place in 1914, but a change of heart in London saw several thousand Maori eventually fight in the First World War.
Their request could not be denied them by their elders and chieftains, all their long history had been steeped in the religion of war, and the training of the Maori child from his infancy to manhood was aimed at the perfection of the warrior-class, while to die in the pursuit of the War God Tumatauenga was a sacred duty and a manly death.
While leaders such as Apirana Ngata stressed the ‘price of citizenship’ line, ultimately many Maori enlisted for a mixture of reasons – to escape poverty or life in the backblocks or to follow their mates.

The Maori Battalion during a haka in Egypt.

By the time the Second World War ended in 1945 the 28th (Maori) Battalion had become one of the most celebrated and decorated units in the New Zealand forces. The pinnacle of its achievement was the Victoria Cross won by Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu in 1943. Ultimately, nearly 16,000 Maori enlisted for service during the Second World War.

New Zealanders reacted with patriotic fervour to the outbreak of war in South Africa in 1899 and again when the First World War began in 1914. Imperial policy had officially excluded Maori from fighting in South Africa, but a number still enlisted. That policy was still in place in 1914, but a change of heart in London saw several thousand Maori eventually fight in the First World War.

By the time the Second World War ended in 1945 the 28th (Maori) Battalion had become one of the most celebrated and decorated units in the New Zealand forces. The pinnacle of its achievement was the Victoria Cross won by Te Moananui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu in 1943. Ultimately, nearly 16,000 Maori enlisted for service during the Second World War.

New Zealanders reacted with patriotic fervour to the outbreak of war in South Africa in 1899 and again when the First World War began in 1914. Imperial policy had officially excluded Maori from fighting in South Africa, but a number still enlisted. That policy was still in place in 1914, but a change of heart in London saw several thousand Maori eventually fight in the First World War.

Their request could not be denied them by their elders and chieftains, all their long history had been steeped in the religion of war, and the training of the Maori child from his infancy to manhood was aimed at the perfection of the warrior-class, while to die in the pursuit of the War God Tumatauenga was a sacred duty and a manly death.

While leaders such as Apirana Ngata stressed the ‘price of citizenship’ line, ultimately many Maori enlisted for a mixture of reasons – to escape poverty or life in the backblocks or to follow their mates.

Tūmatauenga

In Māori mythology or Tūmatauenga (Māori: ‘Tū of the angry face’) is one of the great gods, and the origin of war. All war-parties were dedicated to him, and he was treated with the greatest respect and awe. He is usually a son of the primordial parent, sky and earth (see Rangi and Papa). In a Te Arawa version, Tūmatauenga advises his brothers to kill their parents Rangi and Papa in order to allow light and space into the world, but the kinder proposal of Tāne is accepted and instead the primordial pair are forced apart. Tūmatauenga thinks about the actions of Tāne in separating their parents, and makes snares to catch the birds, the children of Tāne, who can no longer fly free. He then makes nets, and traps the children of Tangaroa. He makes hoes to dig the ground, capturing his brothersRongo and Haumia-tiketike, heaping them into baskets to be eaten. The only brother that Tūmatauenga cannot subdue completely is Tāwhirimātea, whose storms and hurricanes attack humankind to this day because of his indignation at the actions of his brothers 

Tūmatauenga’s actions provide a pattern for human activities. Because Tūmatauenga defeated his brothers, people can now, if they perform the appropriate rituals, kill and eat birds (the children of Tāne), fish (the children of Tangaroa), cultivate and harvest food plants (the children of Rongo and Haumia-tiketike), and generally harness the resources of the natural world. Tūmatauenga is also the originator of warfare, and people make war now because Tūmatauenga provided the example. When rituals were performed over warriors before a battle, or when an infant was dedicated to a future role as a fighter, Tūmatauenga was invoked as the source of their duty. The body of the first warrior to fall in a battle was often offered up to Tūmatauenga. While Tūmatauenga is the origin of war, powerful local deities such as Kahukura, Maru or Uenuku were also called upon in time of war (Orbell 1998:185-186).

Tutorial #3

The Marae is the bastion of Maori culture.

In front of the wharenui is the marae atea - a very tapu piece of land.  Whereas inside the wharenui itself, it isn’t tapu.

Manuhiri - the visitors

Tangata whenua - the locals.  The tangata whenua will challenge the newcomers to the Marae - to check if they’re peaceful etc.

Speeches take palce on the marae atea.  This area is the domain of Tuumatauenga - the god of war.  It can stretch on for miles. 

A guardian would stand at the edge of the marae atea.  He would be one of the fastest and best warriors.  This warrior would challenge the visitors, determine their intentiond & run back to the marae to convey them.  If their intentions were hostile, and they killed the guardian before he could get back, it was a very bad omen.  

Only men would talk of the marae atea, because it represented the state of warfare - in which it is too dangerous for women to be involved.

Moteatea - a kind of chant; and and they same as a “myth”; the vehicle in which knowledge was contained.

Te Ao Tawhite - the ancient Maori world.

Te Ao Hurihuri - the changing world.

Mana - spiritual authority bestowed by atua.

Ihi - magnetism, the charismatic force.

Tupuna = tipuna (ancestor).

There are different ways in which Te Reo can be pronounced.  ”Wh” can become a “h”; “Ng” can become a “k”.

Tuakana/teina - same sex older/younger siblings.

Ariki line - the first born of the first born - a lot of authority over the teina.  

Even if A is younger than B, if A is of a more tuakana line, they are more superior.

Whakapapa isn’t just family - it’s a rock, a feeling, a situation and a state of being.

Whakapapa as a tool of analysis - where the parents are the causal factors etc.

There are over 72 Maori gods/deities.  

* Tane Mahuta - the god of trees, forests, birds

* Tangaroa - god of the sea

* Tawhiri matea - god of the wind, elements, the weather

* Ruaumoko - the god of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes (the unborn child of Papatuanuku)

* Tumatauenga - the god of war

* Rongomatutane - the god of peace and cultivated crops such as kuumura

* Haumieti ketike - the god of berries, aruhe, fern root.

Turn your face to the sun and the shadows fall behind you.

Maori Whakatauki (via anjelania)

A quote re: adversity.

It was a minor mission to find this in Te Reo: 'Hurihia to aroaro ki te ra, tukuna to atarangi kia taka ki muri i a koe.' 


The story of the coming of the Maori to Whakatane is shrouded in the mists of time, but the oral traditions of the tangata whenua (people of the land) make it clear that the region was settled by a series of migrations over several hundred years.
The first inhabitant, more than 1,000 years ago, was Tiwakawaka, a grandson of Maui, the legendary voyageur and discoverer of Aotearoa. Tiwakawaka’s people had lived in Kakahoroa (later to be named Whakatane) for some generations before the arrival of the famed Toi, founder of numerous tribes (Te Tini O Toi - the multitude of Toi) that occupied much of the North Island’s East Coast, Taranaki and the Far North.
Toi’s people married into the original settlers and from his stronghold - Kapu-te-rangi (one of the oldest known pa sites in New Zealand) - above Whakatane, his sons Rauru and Awanuiarangi in turn went forth to found tribes of their own.
Some 200 years later came the waka Mataatua bringing the kumara.
Following the directions of his father, Irakewa, the Captain Toroa, his brothers Puhi and Taneatua, sister Muriwai, son Ruaihona, daughter Wairaka and other members of his family sailed to Kakahoroa, mooring in the river estuary near the town’s current commercial centre. The men then climbed the hillside to Kapu-te-rangi, leaving Mataatua in the care of the small group consisting mainly of women. The outgoing tide was threatening to carry away the waka when Wairaka exclaimed: “E! Kia whakatane au i ahau” (let me act the part of a man). In breach of tradition, the women paddled the canoe back to safety and from this incident, Whakatane received its name.
whakatane - to be as a man.

The story of the coming of the Maori to Whakatane is shrouded in the mists of time, but the oral traditions of the tangata whenua (people of the land) make it clear that the region was settled by a series of migrations over several hundred years.

The first inhabitant, more than 1,000 years ago, was Tiwakawaka, a grandson of Maui, the legendary voyageur and discoverer of Aotearoa. Tiwakawaka’s people had lived in Kakahoroa (later to be named Whakatane) for some generations before the arrival of the famed Toi, founder of numerous tribes (Te Tini O Toi - the multitude of Toi) that occupied much of the North Island’s East Coast, Taranaki and the Far North.

Toi’s people married into the original settlers and from his stronghold - Kapu-te-rangi (one of the oldest known pa sites in New Zealand) - above Whakatane, his sons Rauru and Awanuiarangi in turn went forth to found tribes of their own.

Some 200 years later came the waka Mataatua bringing the kumara.

Following the directions of his father, Irakewa, the Captain Toroa, his brothers Puhi and Taneatua, sister Muriwai, son Ruaihona, daughter Wairaka and other members of his family sailed to Kakahoroa, mooring in the river estuary near the town’s current commercial centre. The men then climbed the hillside to Kapu-te-rangi, leaving Mataatua in the care of the small group consisting mainly of women. The outgoing tide was threatening to carry away the waka when Wairaka exclaimed: “E! Kia whakatane au i ahau” (let me act the part of a man). In breach of tradition, the women paddled the canoe back to safety and from this incident, Whakatane received its name.

whakatane - to be as a man.

Lecture 6

Carvings of ancestors were understood as actually embodying the ancestors.  

Whakapapa means placing things layer upon layer - you lay the first ancestor down and lay the subsequent ancestors on top.  The ancestors form the foundation - the trunk of the family tree.  

Take - is the root, the cause, the founding ancestor.  

When migrating, parts of the ecosystem, sacred stones, the bones of an ancestor would be taken with the migrants.  Upon arrival, they were placed in the ground to enable the growth of a new whakapapa.  

Tipuna - ancestors.  Tipu means to grow, unfold and mature.

Puu - origin, source; the root of a tree/plant; the main stock of a kin group.

Kawai - branch of a gourd/another creeper plant; subsiding line of descent.  

Hika - plant; copulate; line of descent

Through the definition of the words above, it is apparent the concepts of plants and whakapapa were inseperable.  

Te ngata whenua - the people of the land.  In the past, land claims would begin with naming the root ancestor.  People proved their rights by linking oneself to the founding ancestor.

Literacy - the Maori people learnt to read and write really early on. They were passionate about learning.  It was seen as a tapu knowledge/art.  In the musket wars, Bible paper was used as cartridge paper in the rifles - to give that much more power to the bullets.  From early on also, whakapapa and tribal stories were written down.  These accounts were very tapu and would be hidden, kept away from food and buried with the ancestor when they passed away.

Whakapapa can be woven and expanded.  It was a creative art form.  It involved very precise memorization of the details. It could be done via whaangai (feeding; adoption) or via the gift of a name.  Marriage also binds ones wealth to a kin group.

Whakapapa is a form of weaving.  They can be woven into beautiful cloaks which are used/worn at the marriage and birth etc. of chiefs.  

Aho - string/line (i.e. to contact the ancestors); woof/cross threads in a mat; genealogy/line of descent (when one was born, the whakapapa was woven into a cloak); the medium for an atua

Kaha - Boundary line of land; rope; strength; line of ancestry; line on which nui rocks are set in divination.

Kanoi - strand of rope/cord; authority/position; to weave; to trace ones ancestory.

Whakapapas are alive - they are something that you need to keep working on to keep the relationships strong.  There’s a lot of choice built in - which way you want to invest your efforts.  Through abandonment, relationships wither and die.  

Regarding tapu:

Because tapu is the first thing, if there is no tapu, all the worlds of the gods have no mana, and if the gods are lost, everything is useless - people, their actions and their thoughts are in a whirl, and the land itself becomes confused.

The ancestors are present with us now - in people, places, situations or objects.  One must be wary of their power.

If one is close to te Po, you will be endowed with tapu.  Tapu things would also be placed in a museum, because they were considered to be too dangerous/powerful for people to be in contact with them - so they were given to the pakeha to look after until the items were considered safe. 

The more direct link to the ancestors someone has, the more tapu they will be endowed with - this includes the Maori king and queen.  

Some of the early Christian converts would deliberately tamper with/trample upon tapu (at the direction of missionaries etc) to underscore their break from maoritanga.  

Noa is where the ancestors are absent - a state where you’re not restricted and are free to act.  

Something that is noa can wipe out and cancel tapu - it can be very insulting.  Shoes, smoking and food are all noa and hence prohibited on the Marae. 

With regards to women speaking on the marae:

When menstruating, women are considered more vulnerable.  Older women are less vulnerable (they have already had their children & are closer to te Po) - and can have liberty to interrupt and stop the korero of the men, imposing discipline.  

When a marae is built, it will be in a state of tapu when finished.  Women walk over the threshold to make it noa.  

The head is sacred because that’s where the hair is - it represents the genealogy, the link with the ancestors.  Thus the head would be adorned with beautiful combs, head dresses etc.

The only people without tapu would be the war captives.  

Sometimes there would be women with great amounts of tapu (not in all iwi) - such as Mihi Kotukutuku.  This happened more in the North Lands and the East Coast.  

There was a woman priestess in a ship coming to Aotearoa.  Upon arrival, she planted kumura in a place she named “delight”.  The male priests relied upon her, that they might be enabled to eat.  

Some land sites were tapu and would be hidden, so that others might not know and the tapu wouldn’t be transgressed.  This had been a significant problem in modern time, where land developers would come, and all hell would break loose - they’ve been a cause of major misunderstandings.

Urupa - a burial place.  Urupa are widely accepted as tapu places.  This concept is much easier to comprehend than understanding a mountain as an “ancestor”.  

Examples of tapu events - the arrival of the Endeavor, births, deaths etc.

Tutorial #2

1769 - Cook landed in Poverty Bay (East Coast), close to Gisborne.  It was wealthy, as seen in the size of the waka, dog skin cloaks, and absence of fortified pa.  

In Mercury Bay, there were no gardens, no carved canoes, and it was the first time seeing pa.  

Here also, was the first introduction to Maori property concepts - a person’s rights, as opposed to exclusive rights.  

Bay of Islands - the people were wealthy, like in the East Coast.  The people were really fierce, and there had been a lot of raids. It was more densely populated in the East Coast.  There was also an abundance of carvings and moko.  As a wealthy region, there was the constant danger of being invaded for their resources and land.

Totaranui - no root crops, not much tribal wealth, a more hunter-gatherer region.  The environment dictated very much the way that people lived.  There was a lot more weapons, and fewer waka. 

Cooks trip showed the diversity of culture between the different Maori groups - there was no unifying concept of Maori.  When the Treaty of Waitangi was signed, there ere different groups, all with different interests.  

Maori Marsden - a really well known Maori philosopher.

Maoritanga - a way of life; a system of belief.

Maori - literal meaning is “normal”.

Being Maori is a thing of the heart and not of the head.  

Kairarawa (the practicing of cannibalism) and the Chatham Islands People (i.e. the “mori-ori”) were two big myths about the Maori people. 

With regards to Kairarawa, it isn’t done for food.  It was the physical consumption of a persons mana.  It is the greatest humiliation to be eaten and excreted.  

The wiping out of iwi happened periodically - tribes come down, taking resources, bringing havoc and destruction.  This history was used to justify Western treachery.

It is undeniable that the Maori were savages.  They were living in very hard circumstances - to kill or be killed.  However, the theology and way of thinking was very advanced - very poetic and profound. 

lol cute.  Tangaroa. 

lol cute.  Tangaroa. 

Lecture 5

(Lecture 4 recap)

Life was and is different in the different regions around Aotearoa, which relates to the different environmental conditions.  

Kumura and yams were feast foods.  Kumura wouldn’t grow in many places, and neither grew in the South Island.  There were, however, excellent stone resources.  The South Island was populated primarily by small groups that moved around a lot. 

Further north, the root crops grew much better and would support larger populations.  There would be more signs of wealth: moko tattoos, large carved canoes, finely woven dress cloaks, green stone ornaments etc.  

The different groups would have unique customs and proverbs etc.

The main rivers acted like a highway - unifying lots of small groups, permitting the formation of relatively large alliances.  

Cosmology

This relates to the world of light and life, and the world of the dark - that of the ancestors.  Maori stories are very close to those on the Pacific Islands.

Hinengaro - the “mind-heart”, i.e. in Maori thought, there is no mind/spirit dichotomy.  The mind (thought) and the heart (emotions) are totally locked together - there is no conceptual distinction.  

In the cosmological account, there is an initial surge of life in the world - not too far from the “big bang”.  

Wananga suggests knowledge and understanding.  Te Whare Wananga o Tamaki-makau-rau is where we were studying.  Knowledge and understanding is one of the early desires that drives the world.  In Maori culture, there is a huge love for learning: it is viewed as a treasure, very rewarding, but hard to master.  It requires a lot of sacrifice and self-discipline.  Learning is a spiritual endeavor.  

There isn’t necessarily any contradiction between the Western and Maori learning systems.  

Te Po - the dark night of creation, that of the ancestors.  It is about both time and place - it refers to a state of being.  It is the early stages of time for humanity, it is the child in the womb for the individual.  At death, you return to Te Po - to your ancestors.  

Te Korekore - the state of potential being.  This refers to the state of the universe before anything really too place/shape.  This is the place in-between - the twilight zone.  

Te Ao Marama - the everyday world of light and life.  The firs thing to come was the sky and the earth as one being.  This creation story of Ranginui and Papatuanuku was paramount in establishing the concepts of gender and gender roles in society (the Adam and Eve story was used thus also).  Ranginui and Papatuanuku were the ancestors of the Maori People. 

"There is but one ancestor of the Maori people - Ranginui the Sky Father standing there, and Papatuanuku the Earth Mother, lying here.  According to the Maori people, Rangi and Pap are the original take (roots; founding ancestors).”

The double spiral, the koru, encompasses the story of the universe.  It can be found in moko, carvings, decorations, meeting houses etc.  It represents the emergence of the cosmos.  As a spiral, we can go in and out: time is not linear; the ancestors are not in the past, you can reconnect with the past - it is not a long way away.

 The Powhiri is effectively a summoning of the ancestors.

 - Haere mai te ihi - an ancestorial force/presence bestowed upon a person

 - Haere mai te wehi - the feeling of awe inspired by someone with a lot of ihi.  

 - Haere mai te mana - the inherent authority and power to accomplish deeds. It is the power of the ancestors to act in this world.

 - Haere mai te tapu.

The Marae itself, is the embodiment of ancestors and encompasses a genealogy: the rafters and pillars are ancestors - they’re all named.  The carvings, pictures etc., were perceived as being the actual ancestors.  Photos can also be used to represent ancestors.  The University of Auckland’s marae is dedicated to the god of knowledge.  

Following the separation of Papatuanuku and Ranginui came the moon, the stars, the sun and the land (couldn’t have land without the previous three elements).  

Some of the children of Papa:

Tane - the god of forests and knowledge

Tawhiri-matea - the god of the winds (he didn’t agree with the separation and raged at Tane)

Tangaroa - the god of the ocean

These gods were very real, and could also be located in different parts of us.  There was no religion/science split.
The cosmos is layered - there are 10-12 layers.  This idea of a tiered heaven is also seen in Tahitian traditions.  
Lecture 4

Continuing on from the East Coast…..

Whitianga (Mercury Bay) - this was one of the earliest sites of Maori settlement.  It has famous adze quarries, and was rich with resources (crops, marine life, birds, eels, ducks, etc.).  The local people were periodically raided by those from the North, and were relatively impoverished.  Their wives and children would be taken as captives during the raids.  However, the people still had some green stone, fine cloaks etc.  Located here, were numerous pa and small rocky fortified islands.

As the Endeavor approached, there were 22 naked warriors in a small dug out canoe, one of whom threw a spear at the approaching sailors in a challenge.  These people had been camping in the bay where they had been keeping their land rights.  They (the Ngati Pou) slept out in the open without shelter, with their weapons staked up against the trees.

"When I was a very little boy, a big vessel came to Whitianga.  Our tribe was living there at the time.  We did not live there as our permanet home, but were there according to our custom of living for some time on each of our blocks of land, to keep our claim to each, and that our fire might be kept alight on each block (ahi kaa), so that it might not be taken from us by some other tribe.  We lived in Whitianga, and a vessel came there, and when our old men saw the ship, they said it was an atua, a god, and the people on board we tupua, or goblins.  The ship came to anchor, and the boats pulled on shore… Perhaps they were asking questions and as we did not know their language, we laughed and those goblins laughed, so we were pleased.”

Here, theft was a serious issue.  Unsuccessful thefts could be harshly punished - death even, could be acceptable.  

Wharetaewa Pa - was built on a high point and defended by precipitous cliffs, and on the land side, by a double bank and two palisades.  The outer palisade sloped inwards over the ditch and was defended by warriors with long spears.  The inner palisade stood on the bank.  Two fighting stages were behind that - each loaded with stones and darts.  The pa was divided into 20 divisions, each with their own palisaded fence, some with 12-14 houses; there were piles of fern root and dried fish, stockpiled in case of seige.

At the Pa, the voyagers were greeted by ~100 people who showed them their fighting skills.  

Pewhairangi (Bay of Islands) - was characterized by very distinctive moko patterns (like those on the rafters).  This was a very wealthy area - manifested in the large, carved canoes, and the fine cloaks and weapons.  

Here, Cook and his crew were almost captured by the warriors when exploring a Pa inland.  

It was a densely populated fertile area with lots of fish.  Most of the countryside had been cleared, there was an extensive river network, and volcanic soils inland.  There were contending tribes in the bay.  Here, they also used huge fishing nets, that could be up to a mile long.

Tapua (a high chief and priest) and his people left their nets and went in their canoes to look at the ship.  The people on board beckoned them to come closer.  So Tapua’s men conferred together, and when they had come to a decision, the canoe commanded by Tapua went alongside the ship, then they threw the fish from the canoe up on the ship, as an offering to those tupua maitai.  They were pleased with the fish, and shouted with joy as they gathered them up.  After this, Tapua went on board the ship, and the leader of the tupua presented him with a red garment and the salt flesh of an animal.  Food of this kind had not been previously known to the Maori.  They found it to be sweet and very good.”

Totara-nui (Queen Charlotte Sounds).  Here, Captain Cook anchored in Meretoto (Ship Cove), and caught fish weighing up to 21 pounds.  Here, no gardens were widnessed.  The people were largely nomadic, and in a state of war.  Abandoned villaged lay around the bay.  Here, also was the first eye-witness of cannibalism.  

"They eat their enemies slain in battle - this seems to come from custom and not from a Savage disposition."

There was significant regional variance of life in Te Ao Maori.  This related to the huge range of environment types.  In the North Island, the climate was warmer, root crops grew (some regions more fertile than others); in regions of large fisheries, and good stone resources, there would be a large, dense population.  It was described as being “an archipelago of islands divided by land instead of water.”

In the South Island, however - fishing and stone resources were abundant.  Root crops would not grow in most places.  The people tended to be hunter-gatherers.  They would live in small, semi-nomadic groups.  

Tutorial #1

The Maori in Aotearoa, Rapanui and the Cook Islands is very similar.  In Tonga and Samoa, the language has changed considerably.  In Vanuatu, there are ~157 languages.

The Lapita people had a very distinctive pottery style with “den-date” stamping.  This pottery style has its origins in South East Asia.  Over time and distance, the pottery became more plane (the stamping technique was lost).  Their economy was founded in the agriculture, clearing forests and the use of local flora/fauna.  They brought yams, dyes, medicines, obsidian, shells, etc. They brought the cultures of moko, hangi, and the tendency to seperate food consumption for every day activities (e.g. working, bathing, etc.).  They also had distinctive housing structures.  

They were skilled sailors and broken the “800km barrier”, and developed canoe technology significantly.  

They were ancestors to the Maori people.  

Aotearoa is much colder than tropical Polynesia; there was also marked seasonality, which meant that crops had to be stored and couldn’t be grown all year around; there were still major natural events (such as volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.); the rock types changed from island rock types to continental rock types (green stone etc.); many new types of flora; larger protein sources (avifauna, dense seabird populations); very large harbors and estuaries as opposed to very small estuaries and coasts.

Flora that was transported includes kumura, taro, yam, gourd and paper mulberry.  The rat and dog were also transported  Banana, breadfruit, kava, sugar can and the Tahitian chestnut were all not transported.  Neither was the chicken nor the pig.  

Europeans came in waves.

1. 1782-1820 - sealers came.

2. 1820-1840 - whalers came.

3. 1830-1907 - loggers came.

And families started coming too.

Iwi - tribe (or from bones)

Hapu - sub-tribe (to be pregnant)

Whanau - to give birth.

We come from a natural progression of life. When you identify yourself, your waka comes first - how you came to Aotearoa.  

Whakapapa is the belief re: how things evolved.  

Tapu - pruity, spiritual, prohibited, sacred.

Noa - Safe.  It removes the tapu.  The concepts of tapu & noa were very practical concepts which provided a means for social control.  

Te Kore (the nothingness) -> Te Po (The darkness/night) -> Te Ao Marama (the world of light/knowledge).  Maori belief and understanding is based on this concept - not knowing, uncertainty and certainty.  Just as with tapu and noa, almost all concepts are complementary, male and female.  This coupling is necessary in order to give rise to something. 

Knowledge is tapu, while administration and leadership is noa.  It is important for knowledge to be regulated as knowledge is power. It ensured that the knowledge was respected, and gave cohesiveness to the society.

Lecture 3

These voyages were not matters of technicality - but rather endeavors of spirituality.  The navigators called on sea, star and wind gods for guidance.  

A sixteen point compass was used - relating to a series of domes around the ocean, and swells (i.e. the pattern of waves hitting the sides of canoes) were named to help with location during the journey & to maintain bearings.  

During the day, the sun could be followed, and at night, a star path - a linear constellation that rose and set during the night on the bearing of the island destination.  Land marks would also be lined up, to help maintain bearings.

Islands would be located by the rooting of birds, and watching them fly home at sunset.  There are also characteristic cloud formations around islands.  Sometimes the islands would cause flowing(?) in the surrounding waters.  

(All of this information would be memorized and passed on).

Joseph Banks was a wealthy young navigator on the Endeavor.  His journals held many key descriptions of indigenous Maori life.  It was in many ways more similar to Pacific Island culture than the contemporary culture we now know.  

Through his journals, and the conversations between Tupa’ia and the local Maori, life was captured as the Europeans began arriving.  

Poverty Bay (Turanga-nui), the north shore of which the Gisborne is located, was where land was first sighted.  Some of the indigenous people thought the Endeavor was a floating island (that the sails were clouds) - suggesting that this may have been a frequent occurrence in Polynesian lore.  Some thought that it was a giant bird and the sail boats were its fledglings.  

The sailors landed on the Eastern bank of the river.  Upon landing, the first initiative was to go looking for flora/fauna.  They first explored Te Wai-o-Hiharore (the west bank of the Turanga-nui river).  

Te Wai-o-Hiharore was a haven/sanctuary where people would fish, stay etc. without fear of being attacked.  The voyagers found two fishing hamlets, a pumice god (was taken, but nails and trinkets were left in exchange), an old net and an earthen oven.  

From here, they ventured ~1k inland, leaving two young boys in charge of the boat.  Four warriors with spears came along,  They weren’t there to attack (if they had been, there would have been more people).  The boys jumped in the boat and sped back to the ship.  The cook on board noticed this, and shot a warrior through the heart as he raised his arm to throw a spear.  

When the voyagers came to land a second time, they brought Tupa’ia.  They were met by a group of ~150 warriors who performed an infuriated haka.  In response, the voyagers fired their muskets into the water.  This, along with the uniforms of the voyagers, and the weapons being so alien caused fear and the haka to stop.  

Negotiations across the river took place.  

One brave warrior swum to to te toka-a-taiau (a mid place), but would advance no further.  Cook swum to him, conducted a hongi, and gave him some trinklets etc. This way, a friendship, and an alliance was formed.  The warriors then boarded the Endeavor.  

On board, the Maori tried to swap their hapu for muskets.  Feeling threatened, the voyagers wielding the muskets fired more shots, killing some of the Maori warriors.  

The attempts to make peace involved attempting to capture some fishing canoes - which resulted in more shootings and deaths.  In this processes, however, three Maori boys were captured.  Tupa’ia looked after them, and they became very friendly. He asked about their gods, and the boys performed a haka for the voyagers.  

The voyagers returned to land the following day and a sort of peace was established.

Both the Maori and the European were from fighting cultures, believing in the intrinsic right to defend ones territory.

Turanga-nui was a rich area, well populated with vast gardens on inland flats, with large Pa on the bends of inland rivers.  It was called “Poverty Bay” as the voyagers only ventured ~1km inland, and failed to find any food.  

Cannibalism was practiced here, and the warriors wore moko.  

In 1996, an Endeavor replica (manned by an Australian crew) followed the voyage of the original Endeavor ship.  However, there is still a lot of anger over the shootings that took place in Turanga-nui, and the replica was met with many fiery challenges.  This history isn’t of the past - it is still very much alive today.

After Turanga-nui, the Endeavor sailed to Anaura Bay (also on the East Coast).  When the Endeavor anchored, two chiefly men came on board and refused to eat anything (as they were in a state of tapu).  They were adorned with red feathers, clad in dog-skin cloaks, and one had an arm-bone earing.  

The people here gave the voyagers a very peaceful welcome.  There didn’t appear to be any fortified villages (or the fortified villages noted were ruins only).  

There was 60 hectares of kumura, yam and taro laid out in a checkerboard fashion - meticulous  and tidy.  Dried grass was kept around the bases of the crops.  There were a couple of aute plants (not really of any use, but are instead prized ancestorial possessions).  

The crops were maintained by ~150 people.  Surplus was probably used for export. 

With regards to Uawa (Tolaga Bay), no one really knows how it got this name.  Carving and moko were the main pre-occupations of the men at Uawa.  Here, the leaders were extremely aristrocratic.  There was a famous carving school, and a school of learning.  The women wore fine cloaks and the community was in a state of peace.  It was a very affluent and peaceful society.

Here, a carving of an ancestor was given to Tupa’ia.